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ADA Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: Screening and Treatment
- Up to 85% of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese at diagnosis, and 74% to 100% of these children have a first- or second-degree relative with type 2 diabetes.1
- Test children for type 2 diabetes every 3 years from age 10 years or at onset of puberty if it occurs at a younger age and if overweight (body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex, weight for height >85th percentile, or weight >120% of ideal for height) and have two or more risk factors:2
- positive family history including maternal history of diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus during the child’s gestation, signs of, or conditions associated with, insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, or small-for-gestational-age birth weight), member of a Native American, African American, Latino, Asian American, or Pacific Islander race/ethnic group
- Establish normal blood glucose and A1C values as goals and begin self-management education, including self-monitoring of blood glucose, at diagnosis.1
- If clinical presentation at diagnosis is without illness, initial treatment should be medical nutrition therapy and exercise; if goals are not met by lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy is indicated.1
1. American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents (consensus statement). Diabetes Care. 2000;23:381-389.
2. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2012. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(suppl 1):S11-S63.
Key words: ADA, children, adolescents, screening, treatment, overweight, obese, self-management, lifestyle changes, prevention, guidelines